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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Plasma?

Plasma is the fourth state of nature, by far the most common form of matter. Plasma in the stars and in the tenuous space between them makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible.

In physics and chemistry, plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. The basic premise is that heating a gas dissociates its molecular bonds, rendering it into its constituent atoms. Further heating leads to ionization (a loss of electrons), turning it into a plasma: containing charged particles, positive ions and negative electrons.

In Plasma, the temperatures and densities range from relatively cool and tenuous to very hot and dense (like the central core of a star). Ordinary solids, liquids, and gases are both electrically neutral and too cool or dense to be in a plasma state. Plasma consists of a collection of free-moving electrons and ions - atoms that have lost electrons. Energy is needed to strip electrons from atoms to make plasma. The energy can be of various origins: thermal, electrical, or light (ultraviolet light or intense visible light from a laser). With insufficient sustaining power, plasmas recombine into neutral gas.

How does Plasma Gasification also called Plasma Pyrolysis work?

The basics of plasma technology are straightforward. A high-voltage current is passed between two electrodes to create a high-intensity arc, which in turn rips electrons from the air and converts the gas into plasma or a field of, intense and radiant energy. The constant flow of electricity through the plasma maintains a field of extremely intense energy powerful enough to disintegrate anything in its path into its component elements. Since most metals have gasification points above the ones needed to produce plasma, they only melt and stay liquid through the process, the balance of the elements disintegrate and form plasma. In an oxygen-starved environment the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous materials into fragments of compounds originates plasma which when it cools recombines into a neutral gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide CO and Hydrogen gas H2.

With Plasma Gasification, it is possible to transform all types of waste into new energy. The solutions can generate electricity, steam and petrochemical distillates like Kerosene, diesel fuel, Jet fuel and gasoline. There are other byproducts generated in the transformation that can be recovered with the main ones being Vitrified Glass, metals depending on the content of the waste, Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfur and Distilled Water.

Plasma is the fourth state of nature, by far the most common form of matter. Plasma in the stars and in the tenuous space between them makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible.

Why hasn't this method been used before?

Plasma technology has been around for years but was never seriously considered for the application of waste disposal because the conventional approach of using landfills was less expensive. Now that fuel costs are on a constant rise and landfills in scarce supply, the use of plasma technology in garbage disposal has merited deeper consideration. Plasma Gasification is the process of using plasma technology in the disposal of waste.

Is the electricity produced by Plasma Gasification considered "green electricity"?

Yes, Plasma Gasification significantly reduces air emissions including; carbon emissions and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as emissions of nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and particulate matter.

Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are recognized as the leading greenhouse gas associated with climate change.

Is Gasification the same as Incineration?

No, there are key differences between Gasification and Incineration that make gasification a much cleaner and efficient process:

  • Incineration is designed to maximize the conversion of waste to Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O). Whereas Gasification is designed to maximize the conversion of waste to pure Carbon (CO) and Hydrogen (H2). Therefore, the outputs of gasification are clean compared to the outputs of Incineration.
  • Incineration uses large quantities of excess air. Gasification uses limited quantities of oxygen (O).
  • Incineration is a highly oxidizing environment. Gasification is a reducing environment.
  • Incineration operates at temperatures below the ash melting point. Mineral matter is converted to bottom ash and fly ash. Gasification operates at temperatures above the ash melting point. Mineral matter is converted to glassy slag and fine particulate matter (char).
  • In Incineration the Flue gas cleanup is done at atmospheric pressure. In Gasification the Syngas cleanup is done at high pressure.
  • In Incineration treated flue gas is discharged to atmosphere. In Gasification treated syngas is used for chemical production and/or power production (with subsequent flue gas discharge). This makes gasification a cleaner and efficient process.
  • In Incineration fuel sulfur is converted to SOx and discharged with the flue gas. In Gasification the recovery of reduced sulfur species is in the form of a high purity elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid byproduct.
  • In Incineration the Bottom ash and fly ash is collected, treated, and disposed as hazardous wastes. In Gasification Slag is non-leachable, nonhazardous and suitable for use in construction materials. Fine particulate matter recycled to gasifier or processed for metals reclamation.

How does Plasma Gasification help the environment?

Plasma Gasification is environmental friendly in the sense that generates a lot less CO2 and other harmful gases in the process of recovering the energy from the garbage and at the same time can produce new materials that have commercial applications or use and thus generate profit.

Plasma Gasification is the closest application of the first law of thermodynamics that state that mass and energy is neither created nor destroyed but transformed

Is there any maintenance involved and how is it done so it doesn't interrupt the production of electricity?

The system is totally modular with the electricity produces in modular trains. If one modular train fail or requires maintenance, the other trains continue to operate and generate electricity.

Is the plasma gasification process safe?

Yes the process contains redundant security controls and in any major failure the electricity to the laser torches will be interrupted, causing the plasma generation to stop immediately and the reactor to start cooling rapidly